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Country summaries: Scandinavia

We have summarised some of our main findings from each country into separate booklets that can be downloaded here.


The Swedish component of the project focuses on the management of moose in Sweden. Swedish moose (Alces alces) management has over the years gone from a situation similar to that of a tragedy of the commons, i.e. where open access and unrestricted demands lead to over-exploitation, into a situation characterized by abundance of moose. Whilst high numbers of moose are preferred by hunters, they damage forests through browsing, causing conflicts between the hunters and forest owners.

In attempts to resolve the disputes, the Swedish government is introducing a new local ecosystem-based management system. The research in Sweden has focused on the consequences of this shift from managing a single resource to the broader perspective of ecosystem management and how it will contribute to conflict resolution. The results suggest that some of the problems highlighted may be solved through the implementation of an ecosystem management system. However, several challenges remain to be tackled, such as how to establish robust partnerships between forest owners and hunters for managing moose on land with mixed private and public ownership.

For updates, comments and questions please contact Camilla Sandström (


The primary research activity in Norway has been related to the sub-project entitled “The cultural meaning of hunting”. Hunting is an extremely important mode of human-nature interaction, but how people think about hunting is closely linked to culture patterns and value systems. To address hunting merely as an interaction between humans and animals, and manage it accordingly, will therefore miss essential dimensions of hunting as a social practice. In spite of this, hunting in modern societies has received limited attention from the social sciences. One of the objectives of HUNT has been to remedy this situation.
Through focus groups and individual interviews involving approximately 80 people (hunters, non-hunters and animal rights activists) we have mapped people’s views on various aspects of hunting in Norway.

A secondary focus has been on the case study of lynx hunting from an ecological and wildlife management perspective. The data collection for this case study has been ongoing for more than 17 years and consists of long term monitoring data, the collection of biological material from animals shot or found dead, and radio-telemetry based field studies. Within the context of HUNT we have analyzed this data with a view to developing practical tools to help wildlife managers in setting hunting quotas that are sustainable. 

For updates, comments and questions please contact  Ketil Skogen ( or John D. C. Linnell (

Photo: P. Jordhøy